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Trust, Regulation, and Human-in-the-Loop AI: within the European region

By Stuart E. Middleton, Emmanuel Letouzé, Ali Hossaini, Adriane Chapman

Communications of the ACM, Vol. 65 No. 4, Pages 64-68

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Artificial intelligence (AI) systems employ learning algorithms that adapt to their users and environment, with learning either pre-trained or allowed to adapt during deployment. Because AI can optimize its behavior, a unit's factory model behavior can diverge after release, often at the perceived expense of safety, reliability, and human controllability. Since the Industrial Revolution, trust has ultimately resided in regulatory systems set up by governments and standards bodies. Research into human interactions with autonomous machines demonstrates a shift in the locus of trust: we must trust non-deterministic systems such as AI to self-regulate, albeit within boundaries. This radical shift is one of the biggest issues facing the deployment of AI in the European region.

Trust has no accepted definition, but Rousseau28 defined it as "a psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intentions or behavior of another." Trust is an attitude that an agent will behave as expected and can be relied upon to reach its goal. Trust breaks down after an error or a misunderstanding between the agent and the trusting individual. The psychological state of trust in AI is an emergent property of a complex system, usually involving many cycles of design, training, deployment, measurement of performance, regulation, redesign, and retraining.


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