“Hard” borders could potentially become invisible within a few years amid technological advancements, but practical applications could carry high costs and intrusive electronic surveillance.
Nevertheless, a number of borders around the world are being modernized; for example, Switzerland hopes to digitize its border procedures with the European Union fully by 2026, using its DaziT program to establish a central online portal for all customs services. Blockchain technology will likely shield the security of such systems.
Singapore and other ports are already using IBM/Maersk's blockchain-based TradeLens process to access electronic data for tracking shipping containers and their contents for importers, freight forwarders, port operators, and customs authorities.
Even with electronic security measures, authorities will still require physical safeguards to prevent smuggling.
At the Swedish-Norwegian border, for example, equipment like automatic license-plate recognition cameras is used to check passing vehicles.
From The Economist
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