Luxembourg's CNPD data protection authority fined Amazon a record $888 million for breaching the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
The EU regulator charged the online retailer with processing personal data in violation of GDPR rules, which Amazon denies.
The ruling closes an investigation triggered by a 2018 complaint from French privacy rights group La Quadrature du Net.
Amazon says it gathers data to augment the customer experience, and its guidelines restrict what employees can do with it; some lawmakers and regulators allege the company exploits this data to gain an unfair competitive advantage.
Amazon also is under EU scrutiny concerning its use of data from sellers on its platform, and whether it unfairly champions its own products.
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