In 2007, Estonia was the subject of a series of cyber attacks which crippled the Internet across the country.
Banks, government departments and the national media all found their websites swamped by a tidal wave of spam which took them down.
The perpetrators were never caught.
Some evidence pointed to Russian government involvement in the attacks, but no definitive link to the Kremlin was found.
So was it the first ever act of cyber-war?
Experts from nearly 40 countries gathered in the Estonian capital Tallinn to discuss the latest issues in the fight against virtual attackers.
Estonian President Toomas Hendrik Ilves opened the conference with a stark warning about the seriousness of cybercrime.
"Our critical infrastructure, electricity grids, transportation networks and mobile phone networks are so enmeshed and tied to the Internet that any open society is open to complete and utter failure," he said.
From BBC News
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